What does the newborn screening mean?
Newborn screening program in Slovakia is testing all newborns born in Slovakia for the certain diseases, which seriously affect newborns, but are well treatable.
Which diseases can be determined with screening?
There is a big number of these diseases and the number is constantly updated with the new ones. In practice, the Slovak screening seeks for congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract and dislocations of the hip joint using ultrasound. Among congenital disorders of metabolism and endocrine glands belong Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH), Phenylketonuria (PKU) and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), which are examined at all live births. So-called selective screening is performed targeted, if the child shows signs of certain selected diseases - diagnostic capabilities are accessible for those diseases.
What is the probability that my child will have some of these diseases?
The chance that your child will have one of these diseases is small. In case the disease has been collected by screening, early diagnosis and treatment can usually prevent the problems associated with these diseases. Neonatal screening tests give an early opportunity to detect the disease even before the appearance of typical symptoms.
When and where will my child be tested?
The collection for screening test has been made to each and every newborn at the maternity clinic on 3rd to 5th day of life. If the baby is released earlier, or moved to another maternity clinic, the hospital, where the newborn was born has a duty to arrange the screening collection, as well as the duty to write this data to the dismissal reports. It is necessary to test a few blood drops from a newborn heel, which are absorbed to the special filter paper made for this purpose.
Will my baby be tested even if it is born at home or outside the hospital?
Yes. Primary care physician for children and adolescents or midwife or pediatric nurse arrange the realization of screening.
What does rescreening mean?
In some cases, there is a need to repeat the perform of screening - make rescreening. It is usually performed to newborns which were seriously ill during the first collection of screening, which were not accepted milk-food or which were treated by corticosteroid therapy. The impact of these factors on the outcome of the screening must be excluded. Collection is usually made on the 10th to 14th day of life.
What does the result “positive screening” mean?
It means that one of three screening results exceeds the rate that occurs for healthy children. This may be just slightly increased or significantly high. Thus, a positive screening does not mean a confirmation of the diagnosis. It must be supplemented by further examination, to be determined by a doctor to whom the results of screening are reported.
What is the process of positive cases of screening?
According to the value of a screening result, the Screening Center requires additional dry blood collection (slight increase) or reports the result to a physician-specialist and requires a quick solution because the disease is very probable (high value). To finally sort out the status of children detected by screening, there are screening centers established in single regions. They are called Recall Centers and are located in Bratislava, Banská Bystrica and Košice. Competent doctor then verifies the screening detected cases, carries out further examinations and starts the treatment, if the disease is confirmed.